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Service mesh 101 – All key service mesh components & what they do

The landscape of modern software infrastructure is constantly and rapidly evolving. Additionally, modern software and technology have become increasingly complex. These heavily interconnected systems consist of complex devices and service networks that must work together harmoniously. As organizations transition towards cloud-native applications and adopt microservices, the challenges of maintaining effective communication between these services escalate. Latency, network overhead, maintaining data consistency across microservices, and load balancing are some of the complexities of microservices architecture. 

Service mesh emerges as a compelling enabler of smoother interactions as it succeeds in untangling the intricacies of inter-service communication. 

This article delves into the world of service mesh and its components. From learning what a service mesh is and exploring its significant role in simplifying the complexities of microservices to understanding the fundamental components that make a service mesh, this article aims to arm you with insights required to comprehend the capabilities of a service mesh.

What is a service mesh?

Service mesh is a dedicated and configurable infrastructure layer providing a comprehensive framework for managing communication between multiple individual services. It abstracts away the difficulties of inter-service interactions and enables developers to focus on functionality rather than complex networking details. A service mesh provides built-in security features that ensures only authorized services can communicate, thus reducing the risk of potential vulnerabilities. It also simplifies governance and compliance across diverse microservices by centralizing communication and security policies. 

Service mesh comes with observability tools that capture data and provide insights into latency, service health, etc. Service meshes allow you to implement mechanisms that enhance system resilience, thus allowing the system to handle failures and degraded performance gracefully. 

Why do you need a service mesh?

The good old days of programs being developed and deployed as a single application are long gone. As applications adopt a microservices infrastructure, the number of services and interactions have become complex. Service mesh is not only pivotal in orchestrating microservices, but it also comes with a whole bunch of other benefits:


A service mesh provides authentication, access control, encryption, and security enforcement to interactions and traffic between services using a transport layer security. A service mesh can ensure secure communication between services by employing techniques like fine-grained access control and mutual TLS authentication. Service meshes can also consistently enforce security policies across services and reduce the risk of data breaches. 


Service meshes can streamline a wide range of tedious and time-consuming tasks that eat up developers’ time. This enables developers to pursue innovation, growth, and faster development. Service meshes can also distribute traffic to ensure services can scale up or down based on demand. 

Vendor agnostic

Service mesh solutions tend to be vendor-agnostic as they are designed to be compatible with various programming languages and cloud environments. This enables enterprises to avoid being locked into a particular platform while choosing from the best technologies for their specific needs. 

Observability and monitoring

Service mesh, the connective tissue between services, can collect information on latency, traffic, and access with negligible changes to application code. It enhances observability and provides better insights into service performance and potential issues. 


Service meshes can provide a layer of abstraction that protects applications from any changes in security practices, infrastructure configurations, etc. This enables systems to adapt to new challenges rapidly. 

Components of a service mesh

A service mesh consists of two components, the data plane, and the control plane. 

Data plane

The data plane is a network proxy composed of lightweight components called sidecars. These are deployed with each microservice instance and intercept all inbound and outbound network traffic for the associated service. Each proxy can distribute inbound requests among multiple instances of the same microservice, thus ensuring even load distribution. Proxies can also provide authentication, encryption, service discovery, etc., to optimize service communications.

Sidecars can provide functionality like Mutual Transport Layer Security (mTLS) at the connection level to ensure secure communication between services, irrespective of their physical locations. Sidecars can also prevent resources from being tied up in slow services by setting request timecodes.

Control plane

The control plane is the hub of centralized management and configuration. It coordinates the behavior of the data plane and provides an interface for the proxies to coordinate their actions. The control plane enables operators to interact with the service mesh using a CLI or API. It tracks all microservices and their instances and allows dynamic updates as new services are added. This also allows enterprises to make changes without the need for manual intervention.

The control plane enforces security policies, policies related to traffic routing, and policies related to observability. These policies are then distributed to the data plane sidecars to guarantee consistent behavior across services. The control plane helps provide insights into service health and performance by collecting telemetry data from data plane sidecars. 

So, the data plane, embodied by proxy sidecars, ensures seamless communication between microservices sans the complexities. And the control plane provides centralized policy management, manages service instances, and collects telemetry data. 


As technology advances exponentially, service mesh stands as a bridge between the potential of microservices and the pragmatic challenges of implementing them. Although a service mesh only has two major components, the data plane, and the control plane, the harmony between them defines the orchestration behind a service mesh. Service meshes enable us to manage and optimize distributed systems and enhance their security while abstracting away networking concerns and complexities. It empowers organizations to build scalable, resilient, and secure applications.


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